Communication frameworks are essentially a set of tools, principles, and guidelines that can help you improve the way you communicate with others. They can help you structure your messages, select the right channel and tone, consider your audience, and ultimately achieve your communication goals.

There are two main types of communication frameworks:

  1. Communication style frameworks: These help you understand your own communication style and the styles of others. This can help you adapt your communication to be more effective with different people. Some common communication style frameworks include DISC, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), and social styles.
  2. Communication planning frameworks: These help you plan and structure your communication for a specific purpose. Some common communication planning frameworks include AIDA, Enemy, Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS), Outcome, and QUEST.

By using communication styles and planning frameworks, it enhances communication skills, fostering more effective interactions. This proficiency contributes to stronger relationships, enhanced teamwork, and increased success in both personal and professional spheres. Effective communication stands as the foundation of successful relationships, be they personal or professional. Delving into communication styles and planning frameworks can notably refine our engagement with others. Let’s delve into several prevalent frameworks and their practical implications in everyday situations.

Communication style frameworks.

communication style frameworks
Frameworks- image from Googe Gemini

1. DISC Model

The DISC Model categorizes individuals into four primary behavioral styles:

Dominance (D): Dominant individuals are assertive, results-oriented, and direct. They appreciate efficiency and prefer concise communication. In everyday scenarios, understanding a dominant person’s preference for brevity can help you convey information more effectively.

Influence (I): Influencers are outgoing, enthusiastic, and people-oriented. They thrive on social interactions and enjoy storytelling. When communicating with an influencer, engage in friendly conversations and allow space for personal anecdotes.

Steadiness (S): Steady individuals value stability, harmony, and collaboration. They are great listeners and prefer a calm, supportive environment. In everyday situations, be patient and empathetic when interacting with steady personalities.

Conscientiousness ©: Conscientious individuals are analytical, detail-oriented, and systematic. They appreciate accuracy and well-organized information. When communicating with a conscientious person, provide clear data and avoid vague statements.


Imagine a team meeting:

Dominance (D): The dominant team member takes charge, sets clear goals, and expects quick decisions. They’re like a focused arrow aiming at the target.
Influence (I): The influencer engages everyone, shares stories, and keeps the atmosphere lively. They’re like the sun, spreading warmth and energy.
Steadiness (S): The steady team member listens attentively, offers support, and ensures everyone feels heard. They’re the calm harbor amidst the storm.
Conscientiousness ©: The conscientious individual analyzes data, provides detailed reports, and ensures accuracy. They’re the meticulous architects building a sturdy structure.

Everyday Use:
D: When leading a project, set clear expectations and deadlines. Be concise and results-oriented.
I: In social gatherings, share anecdotes and connect with people. Be enthusiastic and approachable.
S: During conflicts, listen actively and seek common ground. Prioritize relationships.
C: When presenting data, provide evidence and organized information. Avoid vague statements.

2. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

The MBTI classifies personality types based on four dichotomies:

Introversion (I) vs. Extroversion (E): Introverts recharge through solitude, while extroverts thrive on social interactions. Recognize these preferences and adapt your communication style accordingly.

Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N): Sensing types focus on facts and details, while intuitive types explore possibilities and patterns. Tailor your communication by emphasizing specifics or broader concepts.

Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F): Thinkers prioritize logic and objectivity, while feelers consider emotions and relationships. Acknowledge emotional aspects in conversations with feelers.

Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P): Judgers prefer structure and planning, while perceivers are adaptable and spontaneous. Be flexible and open-minded when communicating with perceivers.


Picture a coffee shop conversation:

Introvert (I): The introvert enjoys a quiet corner, reading a book or working on a laptop. They recharge in solitude.
Extrovert (E): The extrovert chats with everyone, sharing stories and laughter. They thrive on social interactions.
Sensing (S): The sensing friend notices details—the aroma of coffee, the texture of the table. They focus on facts.
Intuition (N): The intuitive friend discusses abstract ideas—the future of coffee culture, the meaning of life. They explore possibilities.

Everyday Use:

I: respect introverts’ need for alone time. Give them space to recharge.
E: Engage extroverts in lively conversations. Appreciate their social energy.
S: Provide specifics when discussing plans or tasks.
N: Explore big-picture concepts and brainstorm creative solutions.

3. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI)

The TKI assesses how individuals handle conflict. Understanding the five conflict-handling styles can enhance everyday interactions:

Competing: assertive and uncooperative. Use this style when quick decisions are necessary.

Collaborating: Both assertive and cooperative. Collaborate to find win-win solutions.

Compromising: moderately assertive and cooperative. Compromise when maintaining relationships is essential.

Avoiding: unassertive and uncooperative. Avoidance may be suitable for minor issues.

Accommodating: cooperative but unassertive. Accommodate to maintain harmony.


Imagine a disagreement among friends:

Competing: One friend insists on going to a specific restaurant. They want their choice to prevail.
Collaborating: Friends discuss various restaurant options, considering everyone’s preferences. They find a win-win solution.
Compromising: Friends compromise—they’ll try the preferred restaurant this time, but next time, it’s someone else’s turn.
Avoiding: A friend avoids the conflict altogether, suggesting they eat at home.
Accommodating: Another friend accommodates, saying, “Sure, let’s go where you want.”
Everyday Use:
Competing: Use when quick decisions are necessary (e.g., urgent work tasks).
Collaborating: Aim for win-win solutions in team projects or family decisions.
Compromising: Maintain relationships by finding middle ground.
Avoiding: For minor issues, avoid unnecessary conflicts.
Accommodating: Prioritize harmony and relationships.

4. Social Styles Model

The Social Styles Model defines four social styles:

Analytic: detail-oriented and logical. When communicating with analytics, provide data and evidence.

Driver: Results-focused and assertive. Be concise and goal-oriented in discussions with drivers.

Expressive: outgoing and enthusiastic. Engage in lively conversations and show appreciation.

Amiable: relationship-oriented and supportive. Build rapport and listen actively when interacting with amiable personalities.


Think of a networking event:

Analytic: The analytic professional discusses data trends, industry research, and logical arguments.
Driver: The driver confidently shares their achievements, goals, and ambitious plans.
Expressive: The expressive person mingles, laughs, and tells captivating stories.
Amiable: The amiable individual listens, empathizes, and builds connections.
Everyday Use:
Analytic: When presenting to data-focused colleagues, provide evidence and logical reasoning.
Driver: Be concise and goal-oriented in meetings with results-driven individuals.
Expressive: Engage in lively conversations at social events.
Amiable: Build rapport by showing genuine interest and active listening.

pas model
PAS Planning Framework

Communication planning frameworks:

These help you plan and structure your communication for a specific purpose

(AIDA, Enemy, PAS, Outcome, QUEST):


This stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, Action. It helps structure messages to grab attention, build interest, create desire for your product or idea, and ultimately lead to action.


This framework focuses on identifying a common pain point or “enemy” that your audience faces, then positioning your message as the solution.

Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS):

Similar to Enemy, PAS highlights a problem your audience has, emphasizes its urgency, and then presents your product or service as the solution.


This approach focuses on the desired outcome you want your audience to achieve by using your product or service.


This framework emphasizes crafting clear and compelling questions (Question), to then offer solutions or information that addresses those questions (Unique Selling Proposition, Evidence, and Story Telling). 

Everyday examples:

Communication planning frameworks aren’t just for fancy marketing campaigns! They can be incredibly useful tools for anyone in Kenya who wants to get their message across effectively. Here’s how some popular frameworks can be applied in everyday situations:

  1.  AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire, Action

Leader: A village chief giving a speech about a clean-up day:

Attention: Start with a catchy slogan like “Let’s make our village sparkle!”
Interest: Explain the health benefits of a clean environment.
Desire: Highlight the pride of living in a clean community.
Action: Call on everyone to participate and provide details on meeting time and location.

Brand: A local mama mboga (vegetable vendor) promoting her fresh produce:

Attention: Use colorful displays and cheerful greetings.
Interest: Announce special offers or highlight the locally-sourced quality.
Desire: Talk about the delicious taste and health benefits.
Action: Encourage customers to try a new vegetable or offer free samples.

Person: A student asking a classmate for help with an assignment:

Attention: Briefly explain the difficulty you’re facing.
Interest: Offer to return the favor in the future.
Desire: Highlight the benefits of working together to understand the topic.
Action: Ask directly if they’d be willing to explain a specific concept.

2 Enemy:

Identify a Common Pain Point

Leader: A parent council member addressing teacher shortages:

Enemy: The lack of qualified teachers affecting education quality.
Solution: Propose solutions like community fundraising for teacher incentives.
Brand: A phone repair shop owner:

Enemy: Cracked phone screens are expensive to replace.
Solution: Advertise affordable and high-quality repair services.
Person: Talking to a friend about feeling overwhelmed with work:

Enemy: The feeling of being overloaded and stressed.
Solution: Suggest brainstorming ways to manage workload or offer emotional support.

3. Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS):

Leader: A health official raising awareness about malaria:

Problem: The dangers of malaria and its prevalence in the region.
Agitate: Highlight the potential health complications if left untreated.
Solution: Promote the use of mosquito nets and early treatment options.

Brand: A water filter company:

Problem: Concerns about the quality of tap water.
Agitate: Discuss potential health risks from contaminated water.
Solution: Showcase the benefits of using a water filter for clean drinking water.

Person: Negotiating rent with your landlord:

Problem: The rising cost of rent is making it difficult to afford.
Agitate: Explain the financial strain and offer proof of income stability.
Solution: Propose a rent freeze or alternative payment arrangements

Do communication frameworks and planning styles influence interpersonal behavior change, verbal and nonverbal communication?

Do they foster the development of effective communication strategies or contribute to the art of communication?

Absolutely, communication frameworks and planning styles play a crucial role in all the areas you mentioned: interpersonal communication, behavior change, verbal and non-verbal communication, and even the art of communication itself. Here’s how:

Interpersonal Communication:

Understanding Styles: Frameworks like DISC or Myers-Briggs help you identify your own and others’ communication styles. This allows you to tailor your approach for better understanding and connection.
Planning for Clarity: Planning frameworks like AIDA or RACE ensure your message is clear, concise, and flows logically. This reduces confusion and fosters smoother interactions.

Behavior Change:

Motivating Action: Frameworks like PAS (Problem-Agitate-Solution) can be used to highlight an issue (problem), emphasize its negative impact (agitate), and then propose a clear solution. This creates a persuasive message for behavior change.
Tailoring Communication: Understanding communication styles can help with behavior change efforts. For example, a more assertive approach might be needed for someone with a passive style, while a collaborative approach might work better with someone who is more assertive.

Verbal and non-verbal communication:

Planning Delivery: Frameworks can help plan how you deliver your message verbally. For instance, using the Outcome framework, you can plan your message with the desired outcome in mind, ensuring your words align with your goals.
Understanding Non-Verbal Cues: While frameworks don’t directly address non-verbal communication, being mindful of it can enhance your message. For example, using open body language and a confident tone can complement your verbal communication within any framework.

Developing Effective Communication Ideas and the Art of Communication:

Structuring Ideas:

Communication frameworks provide a structure to organize your thoughts. This helps you present clear, well-defined ideas that resonate with your audience.

Flexibility is key. While frameworks offer guidance, they are not rigid formulas. The art of communication lies in adapting it to the specific situation and audience.
Improving Overall Communication: By understanding communication styles and planning your approach, you become a more mindful and effective communicator. This ultimately contributes to the art of communication, which is the ability to connect with others on a deeper level through the effective exchange of thoughts and ideas.
In essence, communication frameworks and planning styles act as tools to elevate your communication skills. They don’t replace the art of communication, but rather enhance it by providing structure, fostering understanding, and promoting effective message delivery